Serological evaluation of protective immunity against tetanus in pregnant women attending some rural hospitals in Kano state, northern Nigeria

  • M Sani
  • M Galadima
  • J Ameh
  • A Kawo
  • S Kurawa
Keywords: Neonatal, tetanus, haemmagglutination, tetanus toxoid, primigravidarum, Clostridium, immunoglobulin, Kano.

Abstract

A study on serological evaluation of protective immunity in pregnant women against tetanus was conducted in two rural hospitals in Kano State, northern Nigeria using immuno-electrophoresis and indirect haemmagglutination techniques. A total of sixty (thirty from each hospital) pregnant women (aged 11-45 years) were used to assess their level of protection against tetanus. Details on client’s age, socio-economic status and number of tetanus toxoid injections received during antenatal visits were obtained using structured questionnaire method. Blood samples were collected and analysed for serum and anti-tetanus antibodies as well as the total protein content. The titre values obtained were statistically analysed using one-way ANOVA to see the effects of age, socio-economic status and number of tetanus toxoid injections received on the mean percentage and concentration of albumin, Ig-A, Ig-G and the total proteins of the subjects. Results obtained showed that the highest percentage and concentration of serum albumin recorded throughout the study period were 73.05 ± 9.16% and 55.30 ± 4.97 g/dl at Tiga Dam and Gaya General Hospitals respectively. The highest levels of serum Ig-A were 18.50 ± 1.53% and 13.85 ± 1.21 g/dl both at Gaya. Similarly, the highest levels of serum Ig-G were 15.21 ± 25.81% and 11.55 ± 3.57 g/dl both at Gaya while the highest value of the total protein recorded was 80.23 ± 0.83 g/dl at Tiga. Results of the indirect haemmagglutination analysis indicated that the highest and lowest titre values were 1:922 and 1:13 HU/ml respectively. It was generally observed that age, socio-economic status and number of toxoid tetanus injections demonstrated significant (P < 0.05) influence on the levels of serum albumin, Ig-A, Ig-G and the total proteins. Similarly, clients with more than three injections of tetanus toxoid were observed to elicit higher (P < 0.05) antibody response as compared to those who did not receive any injection (P > 0.05).
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eISSN: 2006-6996
print ISSN: 2006-6996