A protocol for setting dose reference level for medical radiography in Nigeria: a review

  • I Olarinoye
  • I Sharifat
Keywords: medical x-ray, patients’ dose, dose limit, entrance surface dose


Patients’ dose audit reports in some Nigerian hospitals had shown large inter- and intra-hospital variations for the same radiological examinations. They have thus presented the need, to have a national standard for radiological diagnostic procedures and set dose limits for individual x-ray examination centers in Nigeria. These will go a long way in reducing inter- and intra-hospital dose range factors, thus reducing doses to as low as reasonably achievable and consistent with clinical objectives of the examinations. In establishing a national dose limit for medical radiological examinations, there is a need to have a national dose survey. This paper suggests a reasonable and easy procedure for achieving a national radiological dose survey. Due to its simplicity of measurement, the use of entrance surface dose as the dose parameter to be used for setting the dose limit as recommended by the European Union and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is also suggested. ESD can be measured directly through the use of solid state detectors, or indirectly by measuring free air exposure which can later be converted to ESD using standard formula. The methods of measuring the entrance surface dose and how to derive the dose limit from them are also highlighted.

Journal Identifiers

eISSN: 2006-6996
print ISSN: 2006-6996