Quality Assessment of Sachet Water Packaged Around Kano Metropolis, Nigeria
Thirty brands of sachet water packaged within Kano metropolis were analysed for physico – chemical characteristics; colour, taste, odour, alkalinity, total hardness, pH, chloride, sodium, potassium, calcium, lead, zinc, chromium, copper, cobalt, nickel and manganese using standard methods. All samples were tasteless, colourless and odourless. The mean pH value fall within the range of 4.68 – 8.81, of which 20% were acidic. Alkalinity and total hardness are within WHO (1983) permissible limit, the value ranged between 3.33 to 31.67 and 0.00 to 66.8 mg/l respectively, except for a sample from site A that has no hardness. The concentration of sodium, potassium and calcium was found to be within the acceptable limit and the chloride of most of the sample (ranging 123 to 166 mg/l) is above the WHO acceptable limit (125mg/l). Of the heavy metals analysed lead, chromium, and nickel concentrations were found to be above the WHO permissible limit, while concentrations of copper and zinc were below the WHO (1983), permissible limit. Manganese concentration was found to fall within WHO permissible limit in 70% of the total samples, while 17%of the samples have concentrations above the WHO standard and four of the samples have concentration below the WHO recommendation.
Key word: Physico-chemical characteristics, Sachet water, Kano Metropolis