HOW TO SUBMIT MANUSCRIPTS Submit manuscripts directly to The Editor, BIOKEMISTRI, c/o Department of Biochemistry, University of Ilorin, P.M.B. 1515, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria, e-mail: Since all submissions must be processed through this office, alternate routings, will delay initiation of the review process. The manuscript must be accompanied by a covering letter stating the following: the journal to which the manuscript is being submitted, the postal address, e-mail and telephone number of the corresponding author, and the former manuscript number and year if it is a resubmission. In addition, include written assurance that permission to cite personal communications and preprints has been granted. Submit three complete computer print copies of each manuscript, including figures and tables. Type every portion of the manuscript double spaced, including figure legends, table footnotes, and Literature Cited, and number all pages in sequence, including the abstract, figure legends, and tables. Place the last two items after the Literature Cited section. See p. iv-v for detailed instructions about illustrations. Copies of "in press" and "submitted" manuscripts that are important for judgment of the present manuscript should be enclosed to facilitate the review. One copy of each such manuscript should be provided with each copy of the new manuscript. Authors who are unsure of proper English usage should have their manuscripts checked by someone proficient in the English language. Manuscripts may be rejected on the basis of poor English or lack of conformity to accepted standards of style. ORGANIZATION AND FORMAT Regular Papers Regular full-length papers should include the elements described in this section. Title: Each manuscript should present the results of an independent, cohesive study; thus, numbered series titles are not permitted. Exercise care in composing a title. Avoid the main title/subtitle arrangement, and unnecessary articles. On the title page, include the title, running title (not to exceed 54 characters and spaces), full name of each author (surname in block capital), address(es) of the institution(s) at which the work was performed, each author's affiliation, and a footnote indicating the present address of any author no longer at the institution where the work was performed. Place an asterisk after the name of the author to whom inquiries regarding the paper should be directed, and give that author's functional telephone number and e-mail address. Abstract. Limit the abstract to 250 words or fewer and concisely summarize the basic content of the paper without presenting extensive experimental details. Avoid abbreviations and do not include diagrams. When it is essential to include a reference, use the literature citation but omit the article title. Because the abstract will be published separately by abstracting services, it must be complete and understandable without reference to the text. Introduction: The introduction should supply sufficient background information to allow the reader to understand and evaluate the results of the present study without referring to previous publications on the topic. The introduction should also provide the rationale for the study. References should be chosen carefully to provide the most salient background rather than an exhaustive review of the topic. Materials and Methods: The Materials and Methods section should include sufficient technical information to allow the experiments to be repeated. When centrifugation conditions are critical, give enough information to enable another investigator to repeat the procedure: make of centrifuge, model of rotor, temperature, time at maximum speed, and centrifugal force (x g rather than revolutions per minute). For commonly used materials and methods (e.g., media and protein determinations), a simple reference is sufficient. If several alternative methods are commonly used, it is helpful to identify the method briefly as well as to cite the reference. For example, it is preferable to state "cells were broken by ultrasonic treatment as previously described (9)" rather than "cells were broken as previously described (9)." The reader should be allowed to assess the method without constant reference to previous publications. Describe new methods completely, and give sources of unusual chemicals, equipment, or microbial strains. When large numbers of microbial strains or mutants are used in a study, include tables identifying the sources and properties of the strains, mutants, bacteriophages, plasmids, etc. A method, strain, etc., used in only one of several experiments reported in the paper may be described in the Results section or very briefly (one or two sentences) in a table footnote or figure legend. Results. In the Results section, include the rationale or design of the experiments as well as the results; reserve extensive interpretation of the results for the Discussion section. Present the results as concisely as possible in one of the following: text, table(s), or figure(s). Avoid extensive use of graphs to present data that might be more concisely or more quantitatively presented in the text or tables. Limit photographs (particularly photomicrographs and electron micrographs) to those that are absolutely necessary to show the experimental findings. Number figures and tables in the order which they are cited in the text, and be sure that all figures and tables are cited. Discussion. The Discussion should provide an interpretation of the results in relation to previously published work and to the experimental system at hand and should not contain extensive repetition of the Results section or reiteration of the introduction. In short papers, the Results and Discussion sections may be combined. Acknowledgments. Acknowledgments of financial assistance and of personal assistance are given in separate paragraphs. Appendixes. Appendixes, which contain supplementary material to aid the reader, are permitted. Titles, authors, and Literature Cited sections that are distinct from those of the primary article are not allowed. If it is not feasible to list the author(s) of the appendix in the by-line or the Acknowledgment section of the primary article, rewrite the appendix so that it can be considered for publication as an independent article, either full length or Note style. Equations, tables, and figures should be labeled with the letter "A" preceding the numeral to distinguish them from those cited in the main body of the text. References. The References section must include all relevant published work, and all listed references must be cited in the text. Arrange the citations and number consecutively. Cite each listed reference by superscript number in the text. Abbreviate journal names according to Serial Sources for the BIOSIS Data Base, BioSciences Information Service, 1988. BIOKEMISTRI should be cited as biokemistri under References. The following types of references are not valid for listing: unpublished data, personal communications, manuscripts in preparation, website that is not a peer reviewed journal, manuscripts submitted, pamphlets, abstracts, patents, unpublished theses, dissertations, newsletters, letters to the editor, editorials, and material that has not been subjected to peer review. References to such sources should be made parenthetically in the text. An "in press" reference to a NISEB. publication should state the manuscript number or the name of the publication if it is a book. Follow the styles shown in the examples below. 1. Olorunniji, F. J., Malomo, S. O., Adediran, S. A. and Odutuga, A. A. (2000) Promethazine oxidation by redox mediation in peroxidase reactions. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 380:251-256. 2. Hofer, A., Ekanem, J. T. and Thelander, L (1998) Allosteric regulation of Trypanosoma brucei ribonucleotide reductase studied in vitro and in vivo. J. Biol. Chem. 273:34098-34104. 3. Ponka, P. (2002) Iron utilization in erythrocyte formation and hemoglobin synthesis. In: Molecular and cellular iron transport. D. Templeton (ed.), pp. 643-677. Marcel Decker, New York. 4. Leadbetter, E. R. (1974) Order II. Cytophagales nomen novum. In: Bergey's manual of determinative bacteriology (8th ed.). R. E. Buchanan and N. E. Gibbons (eds.), p. 99. The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore. 5. Nolan, D. P., Garcia-Salcedo, J. A., Gueskens, M., Salmon, D., Paturiaux-Hanocq, F., Pays, A., Tebabi, P. and Pays, E. (2001) The endocytic machinery of bloodstream stage African trypanosomes. In: The African trypanosomes (World Class Parasites, Vol.1). S. J. Black & J. R. Seed (eds.), pp. 127-141. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht. Notes Submit Notes in the same way as full-length papers. They receive the same review, and they are neither published more rapidly than full-length papers nor considered preliminary communications. The Note format is intended for the presentation of brief observations that do not warrant full-length papers. Each Note must have an abstract of no more than 50 words. Do not use section headings in the body of the Note; report methods, results, and discussion in a single section. Paragraph lead-ins are permissible. The text is not to exceed 1,000 words, and the number of figures and tables should be kept to a minimum. Materials and methods should be described in the text, not in figure legends or table footnotes. Present acknowledgments as in full-length papers, but do not use a heading. The Literature Cited section is identical to that of full-length papers. For a more detailed Instruction to Authors, please contact the editor.

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