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Diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the rhizosphere of <i>Coffea arabica</i> in the Republic of Yemen

AHNA Al-Arequi
M Chliyeh
F Sghir
A Ouazzani Touhami
R Benkirane
A Douira


Objective: This study describes the status of mycorrhizal fungi in coffee (Coffea arabica) in the Yemeni ecosystems.
Methodology and results: Soil samples were extracted from the rhizosphere of the coffee tree groves in several regions of Yemen. The frequency and the level of colonization of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inside the root bark were measured by assigning an index of mycorrhization from 0 to 5 (Derkowska et al., 2008). The results showed that the AM fungal colonization structures were hyphae, coils and vesicles. The mycorrhizal frequency and intensity reached respectively 100 and 48 % in the Taiz 2 site. The highest spore density was in the order of 100 spores/100 g of soil and the genus Glomus was dominant. The tentative identification test of VAM (Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizae) species, isolated from the rhizosphere of the coffee trees, revealed the presence of five fungal species:, Glomus proliferum, G. etunicatum, Acaulospora sporocarpia, Acaulospora sp.1, Archeospora sp. 1, Scutellospora nigra.
Conclusion and application of results: In all the studied sites the coffee roots were mycorrhized. These results demonstrate the existence of opportunities for the application of controlled mycorrhization in the coffee Seedlings nurseries.

Keywords: Yemen, Coffea arabica, rhizosphere, endomycorrhizae.