Manuscript Preparation

Manuscripts submitted should be in Microsoft word file document, type-written in English, single spaced on only one side of A4 paper using one-inch margins and Times New Roman of 12 font sizes. Manuscripts must be divided and arranged in the following manner: the title, authors contact information, abstract, keywords, introduction, methodology/materials and method, results and discussion, conclusions and/or recommendation, acknowledgments, conflict of interest, references and annex (optional). Failure to conform the order may cause rejection of the manuscript. Tables, diagrams, figures and pictures should be in their appropriate places in the body of the text. All pages numbered starting from the title page.


The Title should be concise and brief to describe the contents of the paper. The first letter of each word must be capitalized. The title page should include the authors' full names and affiliations, the name of the corresponding author along with E-mail, Fax, and phone number and P.O.Box address.


The abstract should not be more than 250 words. It should cover the objectives, Methodology, major findings, conclusion and recommendations. Complete sentences, active verbs, and the third person should be used, and the abstract should be written in the past tense. Standard nomenclature should be used and abbreviations should be avoided. No literature should be cited.


The abstract should be followed by 4 to 6 keywords for indexing purpose. They should be left justified and written in alphabetical order.

 Abbreviations and Symbols

Only standard abbreviations should be used. Abbreviations must be avoided in the title and abstract section.  Non-standard abbreviations are used only when the full term is very long and is used often. Each abbreviation should be written in full sentence and its abbreviation should be indicated in parentheses the first time it is used in the text.


The introduction should provide a clear statement of the problem and the proposed approach or solution. It should be from a broad range to the topic specific need to be addressed followed by justification the problem and objectives.

 Materials and Methods

The Materials and Methods should be complete enough to explain the experiment or the study design and presented in sub headings. However, only truly new procedures should be described in detail; previously published procedures should be cited, and important modifications of published procedures should be mentioned briefly. The procedures, methods or tools used in data collection and statistical analysis should be briefed.

 Results and Discussion

Results should be presented with clarity and precision. The results found by author(s)' in the study should be written in the past tense. However, previously published findings should be written in the present tense. Results should be explained by cross referencing between text, tables and figures, and the statistical significance of the result. The Discussion should interpret the findings and implications of the results obtained in comparison with past studies.

 Conclusion and Recommendations  

The conclusion should come from the finding of the study and state the contribution of the finding to knowledge and indicate future research needs. It should state the contribution of more important findings of the study and the recommendation should indicate future development or policy implication and research needs.


This should be limited to most important contributors. Authors are responsible for obtaining permission for all institutions and persons acknowledged in their manuscript.

Conflict of interest

Authors should declare there is no conflict of interest among researchers and ensure that they are responsible for any conflict of interest that may arise.

 Tables and Figures

Tables: Tables should be kept to a minimum and be designed to be as simple as possible. Tables are to be typed single-spaced throughout. Each table captions should be numbered in Arabic numerals. Tables should be self-explanatory without reference to the text. The same data should not be presented in both table and graph forms or repeated in the text.

 Figures: Figures caption should be typed in numerical order. Graphics should be prepared using applications capable of generating high resolution GIF, TIFF, JPEG or PowerPoint before pasting in the Microsoft Word manuscript file.


In the text, a reference identified by means of an author‘s name should be followed by the by year in parentheses or in the parentheses the name of the author/s followed by comma and the year as indicated in the example below. Last name of the authors should be used. When there are more than two authors, only the first author‘s name should be mentioned, followed by ’et al.‘. The word et al should be followed by period and italicized. In the event that an author cited has had two or more works published during the same year, the reference, both in the text and in the reference list, should be identified by a lower case letter like ’a‘ and ’b‘ after the date to distinguish the works.

 Examples of citation in the text: Dorchies (1978) or (Dorchies, 1978), Goff and Horst (1997) or (Goff and Horst 1997), Caroline et al. (2004) or (Caroline et al., 2004), Getachew (2008a) or (Getachew, 2008 a), Getachew (2008b) or (Getachew, 2008b).

 All citations must be referenced in the reference lists. References should be listed at the end of the paper in alphabetical order and should be hanged. Articles in preparation or articles submitted for publication, unpublished observations, personal communications, etc. should not be included in the reference list but should only be mentioned in the article text. Journal names should be abbreviated according to journals abbreviation standard and italicized Authors are fully responsible for the accuracy of the references.

 Text and Reference Books

Buol SW, Hole FD and McCracken RJ (1973). Soil Genesis and Classification. The Iowa State University Press, Ames, 360p.

Chapters in book

Loegering WQ (1984). Genetics of the pathogen-host association. In:W.R. Bushnell and A.P. Roelfs (Eds.) the Cereal Rusts, Vol. 1. pp. 165-192. Academic Press, Orlando, Florida.

Conference/Workshop/Seminar proceedings

Abebe M (1982). An investigation into the cause of wilt in cotton. Pp. 129-139. Proceedings of Symposium on Cotton Production under Irrigation in Ethiopia. Melka Werer, Ethiopia, 21-22 October 1982, Institute of Agricultural Research.


 Dorchies PH (1978). Prevalence of Oestrus ovis in apparently healthy sheep in southern France. Vet. Parasitol., 27(5):54-59.

Goff JP and Horst RL (1997).  Physiological changes at parturition and their relationship to metabolic disorders. J. Dairy Sci., 80:1260-1268.

Publication of Organizations

WHO(1998). Control of tropical diseases. WHO, Geneva,1:1-5

MoH (2002). Ministry of Health, AIDS in Ethiopia, 4th edition, Oct 2002.

CSA (2000). Analytical Report on the 1998/9 Sample Survey and Vital Events Registration, Aug 2000, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Publications from websites

Thomas M, Diao X and Roy D (2009). Impact of a potential avian flu outbreak in Ethiopia: A multimarket model analysis. Controlling Avian Flu and Protecting People's Livelihoods in Africa and Indonesia


Tolemariam A (2010). Impact assessment of input and output market development interventions by IPMS Project: The case of Gomma Woreda, Jimma Zone. MSc Thesis, Haramaya University, 97p.

Journal Identifiers

eISSN: 2523-1901