The theory of knowledge in contemporary epistemology
Contemporary philosophy in the west has begun with emphasizing “subjectivism” and the theory of “knowledge”. Discussing the nature of knowledge leads inevitably to investigating the nature of “belief”. However, it is important to note that knowledge is always something more than mere belief. To demarcate between truthful and untruthful belief we must have certain criteria. In this essay, an analytical approach has been adopted to first present a historical review of the meanings of “knowledge” and then to discuss the three parameters of knowledge (belief, truth, justification) in contemporary epistemology. The main ideas with regard to truthful belief and epistemological justification are investigated within the framework of two approaches: foundationalism and coherentism.
Keywords: knowledge; epistemology; belief; truth; justification