Spatial assessment on ambient air quality status: a case study in Klang, Selangor

  • N. Z. Shafii
  • A. S. M. Saudi
  • M. Mahmud
  • Z. I. Rizman
Keywords: air quality, correlation, principal component analysis, statistical process control.


Klang as the center of economic and industrial zone in Malaysia has been exposed to poor air quality condition over the years. This study was conducted to evaluate the spatial variation pattern of air quality status in Klang, Selangor by using a four years (2010-2013) secondary database from the Malaysian Department of Environment (DOE). The finding shows that carbon monoxide (CO) had a strong correlation with nitrogen dioxide (NO2) (r = 0.76, p < 0.001), while Air Pollutant Index (API) had moderate correlation with particulate matter (PM10) (r = 0.64, p < 0.001). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicates that the most significant air pollutants were NO2, CO and PM10. Statistical Process Control (SPC) reveals that several PM10 data beyond the limitations of SPC and the national guidelines. This study shows that active collaboration among all relevant environmental departments and agencies should be implemented for the effective management of air quality.

Keywords: air quality; correlation; principal component analysis; statistical process control.

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eISSN: 1112-9867