Effects of Zingiber officinale, Curcuma longa and Alpinia galanga essential oils on the morphological characteristic of cocoa pod borer, Conopomorpha cramerella
The cocoa pod borer, Conopomorphacramerella, is a major threat to cocoa plantation in the South-East Asia region. Heavy reliance and prolonged use of synthetic chemical insecticide in managing this pest may lead to resistance mechanism. Therefore, plant natural product is an alternative for controlling C. cramerella, by using three Zingiberaceae species Zingiberofficinale, Curcuma longa and Alpiniagalanga. The effects of Zingiberaceae essential oils were evaluated in laboratory bioassays against C. cramerella. Z. officinale shows promising results with percentages of length reduction and deformities were significantly different compared to control. Overall results showed that Zingiberaceae essential oils have great potentials for C. cramerella management in the future.
Keywords: Theobroma cacao; cocoa pod borer; Conopomorphacramerella; Zingiberaceae.