Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences

The AJOL site is currently undergoing a major upgrade, and there will temporarily be some restrictions to the available functionality.
-- Users will not be able to register or log in during this period.
-- Full text (PDF) downloads of Open Access journal articles will be available as always.
-- Full text (PDF) downloads of subscription based journal articles will NOT be available
We apologise for any inconvenience caused. Please check back soon, as we will revert to usual policy as soon as possible.

The effects of different focus of attention on throwing skills among autistic spectrum disorder children

N.A. Samsudin, J. F. L. Low


The aim of this study was to examine the effects of external focus (EF) of attention compared to internal focus (IF) of attention instructions on throwing boules in a modified-petanque game among the ASD children. Ten ASD children aged from seven to 10 participated in this study. They were randomly divided into two groups (i.e., EF and IF). The EFgroup were instructed to throw the boules so that it moved in a parabolic trajectory as if they were “creating a rainbow” while the IFgroup were instructedto throw according to conventional techniques, concentrating on the mechanics of the throwing arm during a two week intervention. Repeated Measures ANOVA between groups and tests (pre and post) measuring the accuracy of the throws showedthe EF group performed significantly better compared to the IF group in the post test. Simplified yet effective instructions could elicit effective learning among ASD children.

Keywords: Focus of attention; Autistic Spectrum Disorder; Petanque; Children
AJOL African Journals Online