Physico-chemical characterization of the essential oil of Origanum majorana (L.) cultivated in a semi-arid bioclimatic stage (South-east Algeria)
The essential oils (EO) are complex volatile natural compounds, characterized by a strong odor, produced by the plants as secondary metabolites. The composition of these last is strongly influenced by intrinsic factors twinned with the extrinsic factors such as technology, the cultivation techniques, the édapho-climatic conditions of the culture medium, like those of the storage of vegetable drug, the techniques of treatment, etc… The extraction of essential oils (EO) of marjoram (O. majorana), by the method of hydro-distillation made it possible to obtain an average essential oil yield of about 0.61% of which the density is low. The chemical characterization by gas chromatography highlighted the wealth of this oil in Bornéol (15.50%) and Cineol (11.33%).
Keywords: essential oil (EO); O. majorana L.; cineol; bornéol; Gas chromatography; secondary metabolites