The civil society and the regulation of the extractive industry in Nigeria
This article focuses on the role of civil society organisations (CSOs) in impacting on trends and developments in the extractive industry in Nigeria. For example, CSOs take on the government to promote accountability and probity in the management of the sector that is beset by ineffectual regulation; alleged collusion with multinational corporations having as consequences environmental degradation and human rights abuses; and, ineffective judicial processes, among other things. On the other hand, CSOs are increasingly beginning to play prominent roles in collaborations with extractive corporations in the initiation and management of development programmes. In a nutshell, this paper aims to engage with both theoretical (based on the Hood et al conceptualisation of a regulatory regime, which encompasses information gathering, standard setting and behaviour modification activities) and practical frameworks (such as litigation, collaboration and pressure by CSOs) that explain the evolution of CSOs and their “regulatory” roles in Nigeria’s extractive industry. Civil society and civil society organisation are used interchangeably.
Keywords: Nigeria, CSOs, extractive industry, regulatory framework