Climate Change Adaptive Livelihood Diversification Strategies and Food Security of Crop Farming Households in Rural Oyo State, Nigeria
Climate change has reduced farm output, food availability and food security (FS) among crop farming households (CFHHs) in Nigeria. Diversifying livelihood activities to cope with climate change may improve FS, although, literature is limited on the relationship between climate change adaptive livelihoods (CCAL) and food security. Hence, CCAL of crop farming households in rural Oyo state, Nigeria and its effects on their FS were assessed. Primary data was collected through a multi-stage sampling technique, using semi-structured questionnaire, from 260 CFHHs. Descriptive statistics, principal component analysis, Herfindahl–Simpson diversification index, Foster-Greer-Thorbecke FS measure, Tobit and logit regression models were used for data analysis. Results show that most CFHH heads were male (83%) and married (75.4%). Mean age was 58 years, while household size was five members. Majority (57.7%) of CFHH heads had a high perception of climate change, but did not diversify their livelihoods (58.1%), while the mean diversification index was 0.42. Most common CCAL was soil testing (16.5%), followed by agro-marketing (7.7%). Formal education, primary occupation as trading and artisan, and access to credit significantly influenced the extent of CCAL undertaken by the CFHHs. Food security line was ₦1186.153 and 50.4% of the CFHHs were food insecure. Diversifying into CCAL, being a male-headed household, having formal education, being married, trading as a secondary occupation and change-in-income after diversification improved food security. Hence, climate change adaptive livelihoods should be encouraged among crop farming households to improve food security.
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