Proposed Average Values of Some Engineering Properties of Palm Kernels
The need to know what values of engineering properties of palm kernels to use for rational design of handling and processing systems for palm kernels prompted a literature search for collation of published values. These values are presented in this work. And to manage the discrepancies observed among values published for same properties, the range of values are presented; and average values proposed for adoption in design problems pending the determination and establishment of standard values. The proposed average values include: bulk density of 711kg/m3 and 589kg/m3 for dura or tenera and mixtures of dura, tenera, and pisifera varieties respectively; solid density of 1.17, 1.09, 1.10, and 1.14 g/cm3 for dura, tenera, pisifera, and their mixtures respectively; angle of repose of 33o, 32o, 29o, and 38o for dura, tenera, pisifera, and their mixtures respectively; compressive yield load of 492N and 374N for dura and tenera varieties respectively. Other proposed mean values include: sphericity of 76, 81, and 77% for dura/tenera, pisifera, and their mixtures respectively; geometric mean diameter of 12.56, 12.58, 8.84, and 13.06mm for dura, tenera, pisifera, and their mixtures respectively. The importance of determining and specifying the condition and history of experimental samples associated with published values is stressed. The need to develop or use existing standard methods and equipment for the determination of engineering properties of biological materials is recommended to reduce or limit the discrepancy among values being published for common properties.