STUDY AND ANALYSIS OF ASA RIVER HYPOTHETICAL DAM BREAK USING HEC-RAS
Impounded reservoirs provide beneficial functions such as flood control, recreation, hydropower and water supply but they also carry potential risks. Spontaneous dam break phenomenon can occur and the resultant flooding may cause substantial loss of life and property damage downstream of the dam. A hypothetical dam break on Asa Dam located in Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria was analyzed using United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Hydrologic Engineering Center’s River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) computer model. Unsteady flow simulation was performed using geometric data obtained from Digital Terrain Model (DTM) with 100-year, 24 hr flow event. The HEC-RAS was used in concert with HEC-GeoRAS to assess the flood hazard along the Asa River channel starting from the dam axis and approximately 12 km towards the downstream as a result of the dam break. The highest discharge Q (1913.66 m3/s) and the highest peak stage (277.35 m) just below the dam were produced with breach width of 130.86 m and time of failure of 1.45 hours. The outcome of the analysis showed that in the event of such failure of Asa dam, some areas which include industrial and residential sections along the river channel are at very high risk of being inundated due to the significant difference in the value of the produced water surface elevation and existing ground elevation affecting thousands of people living along the channel immediate vicinity.