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Echocardiographic characterization of cardiac chambers and vasculatures in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) during diastolic and systolic phases

Arafat Khalphallah
Enas Elmeligy
Khaled A. Khesruf
Haitham H. Mohammed
Abdulrahman Abdulkarim
Ashraf M. Abu-Seida
Al-lethie A. Al-lethie


Background: Ultrasonography had diagnostic importance in the evaluation of different diseases in buffaloes, including
cardiovascular diseases.

Aim: The current work describes the normal echocardiographic findings in healthy buffaloes, along with establishing
reference values for echocardiographic dimensions for both sides of the heart, i.e., left and right ones.

Methods: About 30 healthy adult buffaloes that belonged to private farms in Assiut, Egypt, were included in this study.
Each animal underwent a complete clinical evaluation as well as hematological analyses, lipid profile indices, liver
functions, cardio-thoracic radiography, and echocardiography to confirm no diseased conditions were detected. The
study was conducted on healthy buffaloes (n = 30) in Assiut Governorate, Egypt.

Results: The obtained results reported healthy buffaloes with normal clinical findings as well as indices of blood pictures
and serum biochemicals that were within the reference intervals. Radiography revealed a free reticulum and a welldefined diaphragm. The heart was seen as a typical radio-opaque organ. Ultrasonographically, using grayscale B-mode and M-mode, the heart was commonly imaged from the left fourth intercostal space. Different  echocardiographic views were described, including the four chamber view, i.e., right atrium (RA), right ventricle (RV),  tricuspid valve (TCV), left atrium, left ventricle, mitral valve, and interventricular septum (IVS), and the right ventricular  outflow tract, i.e., RA, TCV, RV, pulmonary artery (PA), and pulmonary valve. Cross sections in each of the apex and base  of the heart were described. Echocardiographic dimensions during cardiac diastole and systole, including diameters and wall thickness of each of the atria and ventricles, were demonstrated. Interventricular septal thickness wall thickness as  well as diameters of the aorta and PA, were stated.

Conclusion: The work tried to put reference values on the normal  echocardiographic dimensions using 2-D B-mode gray scale ultrasonography in healthy adult buffaloes. These  echocardiographic reference dimensions with normal echocardiographic imaging will be very helpful in enhancing the  diagnostic efficacy of ultrasounds for recognizing abnormal findings related to cardiac disorders. 

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eISSN: 2218-6050
print ISSN: 2226-4485