Effects of sex and haemoglobin types on gene and allelic frequencies in Red Sokoto goats in semi-arid region of Nigeria

  • O.A. Ibrahim
  • G.E. Jokthan
  • R.O. Alao
  • I. Mallam
  • C.M. Umego
  • L.A. Jinadu
Keywords: Goat, Red Sokoto, Haemoglobin types, Genotypic frequency, Semi-arid.


The experiment was conducted to determine the haemoglobin types and their gene and Genotypic frequencies in Red Sokoto goats. A total of 321 (34 bucks and 287 does) Red Sokoto goats were sampled for the study and 213 of them were sampled for haemoglobin type. The populations of the Red Sokoto goat were studied using Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium procedures. Four haemoglobin types were discovered, namely; HbAA, HbAB, HbBB and HbAC. Only two (2) animals sampled had the rare pre-adult haemoglobin type (HbAC). Haemoglobin AC, AA and BB were identified as the fastest single bands retrogressively with AB being a double band. The gene (allelic) frequency for haemoglobin A and B were 0.6 and 0.4 representing a ‘high-low’ pattern. The genotypic frequencies for HbAA, AB and BB were 0.36, 0.48 and 0.16 representing a-low-high pattern and a greater preponderance for the HbAB. The expected ratio of Hb variants (HbAA, HbAB and HbBB) in this population of goats was 2:2:1 which was different (P<0.01) from the observed ratio of 3:6:1. The observed ratio of 3:5:1 for the does did not differ (P>0.05) from the expected ratio of 2:3:1. However, it differed for the bucks which had observed ratio of 1:4:0. The HbAC typed goats were the least in performance compared to HbBB, HbAA and HbAB variants in Red Sokoto goats. In essence, the haemoglobin genotype HbAB in Red Sokoto goats seems to be favoured by natural selection with preponderance for the HbA allele which suits the northern highlands of Nigeria, though goats with HbBB genotype showed greater promise for improved production.

Key words: Goat, Red Sokoto, Haemoglobin types, Genotypic frequency, Semi-arid.


Journal Identifiers

eISSN: 1119-4308