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Tropical Journal of Health Sciences

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Evidences of endemic Schistosoma haematobium infection among School Children in Shonga Community, Edu Local Government Area, Kwara State, Nigeria

A Nyamngee, K.A. Yusuf, L.D. Edungbola, A.A. Akanbi II, A.A. Njaan, S.K. Olubiyi

Abstract


A study was carried to determine the presence, level of endemicity and the intensity of human Schistosoma haematobium infection in Shonga community of Edu Local Government Area in Kwara State, Nigeria. For permission and maximum cooperation, intensive advocacy and mobilization of the community leaders, school authorities and the pupils preceded the collection of urine specimens which were preserved in 10% alcohol. Microscopic examinations were carried out on the urine specimens. Conclusive diagnosis was based on the characteristic terminal spined egg of S. haematobium. Altogether, 1,479 pupils (60.0% boys and 40.0% girls), aged between 4-20 years, were examined in the over sixteen schools in and around the community, selected by convenience. Of all the pupils examined, 1,144 (77.4%) had the characteristic eggs of S. haematobium in their urine samples. Infection rate for boys was 516 (45.1%) while it was 296 (25.9%) for girls. Thus, boys were significantly more infected than girls (P<0.05). Children between 11-13 years of age had the highest prevalence of infection (47.2%) while those between 4-7 years of age had the least prevalence (30.0%). The overall mean egg-count for the 1,144 infected pupils was 1,598.0±49.32, while the mean egg-counts for boys and girls were 1,213.0±25.6 and 685.0±18.3 respectively. The difference in the intensity of infection between boys and girls was also significant (p<0.05). Of the 1,144 pupils who were infected with S. haematobium 195 (17.0%) had egg-count range of 1-1000, 758 (66.3%) had egg-count range of 1001-5000 while 191 (16.7%) had egg-count range of ≥5001. The prevalence of haematuria was also significantly higher among boys than girls (p<0.05). This study reveals that human Schistosoma haematobium infection is endemic in Shonga community. The awareness about the impact, transmission and prevention of this infection was relatively poor. Research on vaccine development to support the existing chemotherapy for the control and possible elimination of this dreaded but highly neglected parasitic infection should be the priority. Therefore, advocacy, health education chemotherapy and vaccine most be adopted concurrently as the best intervention strategy/approach to eradicate Schistosomiasis.

Keywords: Schistosoma haematobium, prevalence, infection, endemicity, intensity



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