Effects of Caffeine Administration on Body Weight and Memory in Healthy and Streptozotocine-Induced Diabetic Female Wistar Rats
Diabetes is a metabolic condition characterized by inability of the individual to regulate blood glucose within reference levels due to insufficient insulin or ineffective insulin sensitivity by the tissue. There have been reports and observations on the effect of type I diabetes on body weight and cognitive function especially during treatment. We therefore aim to determine the effects of caffeine on body weight and memory in Streptozotocine-Induced diabetic female Wistar rats.
Eight groups of female Wistar rats with mean weight of 180g were used for the study. Groups 1 and 2 were control and diabetic respectively, administered 20mg/kg of normal saline intraperitoneally. Groups 3, 4 and 5 were administered 15, 20 and 25 mg/kg of caffeine intraperitoneally (i/p) per day respectively for five weeks and maintained on caffeine for three weeks after induction of diabetes; groups 6, 7 and 8 were diabetic rats administered caffeine at 15, 20, and 25 mg/kg (i/p) respectively per day for three weeks. Diabetes was induced with 50 mg/kg STZ. Body weight and blood glucose level were monitored weekly. At the end of administration, Morris Water Maze was used to measure their spatial learning and memory. Animals were euthanized by cardiac puncture.
There was no significant (p<0.05) difference in percentage weight change in healthy groups 3, 4, 5 when compared to control. There was significant (p<0.05) decrease in percent weight change in groups 4, 5, 6 and 7 when compared to control.
There was significant (p<0.05) decrease in duration to locate the hidden platform of Morris water maze in groups 3 and 5 when compared to control and diabetic group.
In conclusion, this study shows that caffeine has no effect on body weight in healthy rats but has a dose and time dependent effect on body weight as well as a preventive effect on cognitive decline in diabetic rats.
Keywords: Caffeine, Diabetes, Body weight, Learning, Memory.