Peer review Policy: All manuscripts submitted for publication to the Tanzania Medical Journal shall be subjected to unbiased, independent and critical assessment by one or two outside peer reviewers, who are not part of the editorial staff. Manuscripts will be treated as private property of the authors and will be reviewed with due respect for authors‟ confidentiality. Peer reviewers will be selected from a data base of experts in the relevant fields/specialties, who have contributed significantly in the medical field especially through publications in journals. The names of the reviewers shall be treated confidentially. Details of the review shall not be disclosed to anyone other than the authors and reviewers. Reviewers are not allowed to make copies of the manuscript for their files and are prohibited from sharing it with others, except with the permission of the editor. In the review process the following main points will be considered: i) that the work is original and presents a significant contribution to the medical science; ii) that the experimental designs and methodologies used are satisfactory; iii) that conclusions have been based upon an adequate number of tests with appropriate statistical evaluation; iv) that only appropriate and pertinent references have been cited. Manuscripts with complex statistical components will in addition be reviewed by a statistician. Reviewers should return or destroy copies of manuscripts after submitting reviews. Copies of rejected manuscripts will be destroyed or sent back to the authors. The journal will only accept publication of those manuscripts winning the most favorable recommendation from the reviewers. In order to remove publication bias, the journal will consider for publication any carefully done study of an important question, relevant to the readers, whether the results are negative (that is, convincingly allowing the null hypothesis to be accepted) or positive (that is, allow the null hypothesis to be rejected). Papers considered to be lacking in originality or sound medical scientific message or new contribution will be rejected. After all corrections have been made in accordance with the reviewer‟s comments, and the manuscript has finally been accepted for publication, the corresponding author will be officially notified and all authors will be required to give written consent to publication by signing the author‟s page that shall be sent to them by the editor.