Teachers’ role and learners’ responsibility in teaching and learning science and elementary technology in Rwanda
The aim of the present study is to reveal teachers’ role in teaching and learners’ responsibility in learning Science and Elementary Technology in Rwanda. The source of information is the classroom observation (Upper Primary) from 6 schools purposively selected in Kayonza District. The Flanders Interaction Analysis Categories System analysis research tools revealed that: The instructors’ role in the learning was found, information giver. Teachers had low facilitation to learning and were deciding alone on the content to be taught; concerning the learners’ responsibility and their encouragement for learning, it was found that the results are far from the expectations related to a learner-centred situation: low pupils’ participation, lacking initiatives from pupils and teachers not motivating/encouraging them. The learners were found passive in the classroom interaction, and only responding to teachers’ questions. From the above findings, we affirm that the “teacher-centred approach” dominates in the science classrooms in Rwanda.
License agreement and author copyright
AJESMS does not require authors to assign copyright of their published original research papers to the journal. Articles are published under a CC BY license(Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License). The CC BY license allows for maximum dissemination and re-use of open access materials and is preferred by many research funding bodies. Under this license users are free to share (copy, distribute and transmit) and remix (adapt) the contribution including for commercial purposes, providing they attribute the contribution in the manner specified by the author (read full legal code).
Availability of materials and data
An inherent principle of publication is that others should be able to replicate and build upon the authors' published claims. Therefore, a condition of publication in AJESMS is that authors are required to make materials, data and associated protocols promptly available to readers without undue qualifications in material transfer agreements. Any restrictions on the availability of materials or information must be disclosed to the publishing team at the time of submission. Supporting data must be made available to Editorial Board Members and reviewers at the time of submission for the purposes of evaluating the manuscript. Reviewers may be asked to comment on the terms of access to materials, methods and/or data sets; AJESMS reserves the right to refuse publication in cases where authors do not provide adequate assurances that they can comply with the publication's requirements for sharing materials.
After publication, readers who encounter refusal by the authors to comply with these policies should contact the AJESMS publishing team. In cases where we are unable to resolve a complaint, the matter may be referred to the authors' funding institution and/or a formal statement of correction may be published, attached online to the publication, stating that readers have been unable to obtain necessary materials to replicate the findings.
A condition of publication AJESMS is that authors make materials, data and associated protocols promptly available to others without preconditions.
Datasets must be made freely available to readers from the date of publication, and must be provided to Editorial Board Members and reviewers at submission, for the purposes of evaluating the manuscript.