Food instruction booklet design for the Nigeria food consumption and nutrition survey 2001-2003
In 2001-2003, the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), in collaboration with the federal government of Nigeria, USAID and the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), conducted a nationwide food consumption survey. Since the last national survey occurred in 1963, a major objective was to establish national baseline data for women and children under 5 years old. To ensure the accuracy and quality of detailed food intake data, IITA adapted the USDA Food Instruction Booklet (FIB), a compilation of foods consumed in the country, divided into food groups and subgroups. A Nigerian food composition database formed the basis of the Nigerian FIB, whereby, food groups, probes, a food index, and measurement guides with conversion tables were compiled. The Nigerian FIB included 18 major food groups and 79 subgroups compared to 16 food groups and 100 subgroups in the USDA FIB. For both countries, these food groups highlight how food is categorized and consumed. A typical example was how each country grouped grains and cereals. The Nigerian FIB included four separate groups (cereals, cereal products, confectionaries, and pasta). In the USDA FIB, breads and sweet breads were put together as one group. Cereal, pasta and rice were together as a second group. Examples of these food groups and probes are presented. While both FIBs contained measurement guides (cups, spoons, thickness sticks, rulers), the Nigerian FIB also included indigenous guides. These guides allowed for food weight conversions using local utensils, weights of foods cooked at home and purchased away from home, weights of foods with different sizes, and weights of food items with different measuring tools. Another unique element in the Nigerian FIB was the inclusion of scientific names for foods, their English names, and local names in the three Nigerian languages (Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo). The FIB highlights cultural similarities and differences in food consumption and demonstrates how one country’s survey instrument can be adapted to meet the needs of another.
Key Words: food instruction booklet, survey instrument