Author Guidelines


Section Policy

Peer reviewed (Double Blind)

Article Processing Charges

Publication in EJST is free of charge.

Manuscript Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted to the Editorial office of EJST by e-mail: A cover letter should accompany the manuscript signed by the corresponding author, who takes responsibility for the team of authors.  The cover letter should also indicate the name and address of the corresponding author.

Article content and format

Manuscripts should be written in English and typed double-spaced, on A4 size pages, with margins of 1.75 cm on each side of the paper (top, bottom, left, and right sides), in MS Word. The manuscript should be line numbered throughout. A font size of 12 points (Times New Roman) should be used throughout. The major headings of the manuscript is IMRaD-CAR, i.e., INTRODUCTION, MATERIALS AND METHODS, RESULTS AND DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION, ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS and REFERENCES should be left aligned and written in UPPERCASE letters bold. Subtitles shall be written as follows:

  • First subtitles left aligned, sentence case, bold, normal fort (non- italic); e.g. First sub-title
  • Second subtitle left aligned, sentence case, bold, italic; e.g. Second sub-title
  • Third subtitle left aligned, sentence case, Roman (non-bold and non-italic); e.g. Third sub-title
  • Fourth subtitle left aligned, sentence case, non-bold, italic; e.g. Fourth sub-title

The ABSTRACT should be centered. The title of the manuscript should be centered and placed at the top of page and written in sentence case. All pages must be numbered consecutively. The main text should be typed flush left with no indents and double line spaced. Insert one return between paragraphs, and a double return between paper title, and authors' names and addresses on the first page.

Research papers should not exceed 7,500 words in length, including Figures, Tables and References, and should not contain more than 10 Figures and/or Tables.

Review papers (critical and comprehensive reviews that provide new insights or interpretation of the subject through thorough and systematic evaluation of available evidence) may be longer than Research Papers if appropriate, and subject to the Editor's agreement.

Short Communications (fully documented, interpreted accounts of significant findings of original research) should not exceed 2,500 words including Figures, Tables and References. Short communications must report completed work.  They must have an abstract and references, but the main body of the text does not have to follow the Introduction - Method - Results – Discussion format.

Manuscripts for full length Research articles (Research papers and Review papers) should be divided into the following sections (in this order): Title page; Abstract, key words; Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results and Discussion, Conclusion, Acknowledgements, References, Tables (each table complete with captions and footnotes on a separate page) and illustrations and figures.


The title page should provide the title of the manuscript and full name(s) of the author(s), institutional affiliations. It should also indicate name address, email, fax (if any), and telephone numbers (s) of the author responsible for correspondence about the manuscript. Non-standard abbreviations should be avoided within the title.

The abstract of the manuscript should not exceed 250 words. This abstract should briefly describe the problem (background of the study) and the objectives of the study, how the study was performed (methods), the main findings (results) and major conclusions and recommendations. Non-standard abbreviations and references should not be included in the abstract.


After the abstract, authors should provide 3 to 6 keywords or phrases that will be used for indexing purpose, listed alphabetically and separated using semi-colon.


The introduction should clearly state the background to the research. Include a summary of a search of the literature to indicate why the study was necessary and what it aimed to contribute to the field. This section should indicate statement of what is being reported in the article and the objectives of the work. Avoid a detailed literature survey and summary of results.


The materials and methods section should include the sampling procedures, measurements, data collection and analysis. Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described. For studies involving human participants a statement detailing ethical approval and consent should be included in the methods section.


The results and discussion may be combined into a single section or presented separately. Present the major findings of the study in the text, tables, and illustrations and relate the observations to other relevant studies and indicate possible practical implications including implications for future research. Do not repeat the data in the tables or illustrations in the text all. Emphasize or summarize only important observations.


This should state clearly the main conclusions of the research and give a clear explanation of their importance and relevance. Summary illustrations may be included.


Please acknowledge anyone who did substantial contributions to conception, design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, or who was involved in drafting the manuscript or revising it critically for important intellectual content, but who does not meet the criteria for authorship. Please also include the source(s) of funding for each author, and for the manuscript preparation. Please also acknowledge anyone who contributed materials essential to the study.


  • Ethical statement
  • Conflict of interest
  • Contribution of each authors


Citation in text
Ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text.

The Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology has adopted the Harvard reference style.

References should be cited in the text as follows:

  • Single author: the author's name (without initials, unless there is ambiguity) and the year of publication e.g. (Williams, 2013). Except Ethiopian names which should be cited in full i.e. the first name followed by father’s name e.g. (Amare Assefa, 2014).
  • Two authors: both authors' names and the year of publication e.g. (Williams and David, 2013).
  • Three or more authors: first author's name followed by 'et al.' and the year of publication e.g. (Williams et al., 2013).
  • Citations may be made directly or in parenthesis. Groups of references should be listed first chronologically then, alphabetically. Example (Girma Adugna et al., 2000; Girma Adugna et al., 2001; CABI, 2003; Girma Adugna, 2004; Oduor et al., 2004).
  • More than one reference from the same author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters a, b, and c, etc. (e.g., 2002a, 2002b, 2002c), placed after the year of publication. Examples: 'as demonstrated (Allan, 2000a; Allan, 2000b, Allan, 1999; Allan and Jones, 1999). Kramer et al. (2010) have recently shown ....' According to Berdy (1995), around 11,900 antibiotics had been discovered by 1994.

Reference listing style

The references should be arranged alphabetically by author’s last name then chronologically per author. Publications by the same author(s) in the same year should be listed by year followed by the letters a, b, c, etc. (e.g. 2002a, 2002b, 2002c).

Journal article

Author (s), year of publication (in parenthesis), title of the article (sentence case), full name of journal (in italic font) , volume (bold), number (in parenthesis), and page numbers in full. Examples:

Shukla, G.K. (1972). Some statistical aspects of partitioning genotype-environmental components of variability. Heredity 29: 237-245.

Girum Tamire and Seyoum Mengistu (2013). Zooplankton community grazing rates in a small crater Lake: Lake Kuriftu, Ethiopia. SINET: Ethiopian Journal of Science 36 (1): 1-18.

Zobel, W.R., Wright, W.J and Gauch (Jr.), J.H. (1988). Statistical analysis of a yield trial. Agronomy Journal 80: 388-393.

For a book

Author (s), year of publication (in parenthesis), title of the book (bold), publisher and place of publication.


Steel, R.G and Torrie, J.H. (1980). Principles and Procedures of Statistics. McGraw-Hill, New York.

Pages in a publication prepared by one or more editors
Author (s), year of publication (in parenthesis), title of the publication, name of the publication (bold), pages, Editors (in parenthesis), publisher, place of publication.


Lechevalier, M.P and Lechevalier, H.A. (1980). The chemotaxonomy of Actinomycetes. In: Actinomycete Taxonomy, Society for Industrial Microbiology, pp. 227-291 (Dietz, X. and Thayer, Y., eds.). Arlington, VA.

Melaku Wale (2015). Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) pushes cool-season food legumes to extinction in Ethiopia. In: Pisum sativum: Cultivation, Functional Properties and Health Benefits, pp. 91-111 (Becket, S., ed.). Nova Science Publishers, New York.


Author (s), year of publication (in parenthesis), Title of the publication, Name of the proceeding (Bold font), pages, Place (City/town, Country)


Eshetu Derso, Teame Geberzgi and Girma Adugna (2000). Significance of minor diseases of Coffea arabica in Ethiopia. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Control of Coffee Berry Disease (CBD) in Ethiopia, pp. 35-46, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

For a Thesis

Author (s), year of publication (in parenthesis), title of the thesis, type (MSc or PhD), University, Country.


Alberts, M.J.A. (2004). A comparison of statistical methods to describe genotype × environment interaction and yield stability in multi-location maize trials. M. Sc. Thesis, University of the Free State, South Africa.

Web references

The full URL should be given with the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc., should also be given. Web references can also be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

Toni, R.L and Culvert, L.L. (2003). Safer Hospital Stay and Reducing Hospital-Born Infections. Health Scout News., (Accessed January 9, 2010).

Khan, M.H., Mubeen, S.M., Chaudhry, T.A and Khan S.A. Contact lens use and its compliance for care among healthcare workers in Pakistan. Indian Journal of Ophthalmology [Epub ahead of print] [cited 2013 Nov 12]. Available from:

Dorji, D., Dendup, T., Malaty, H.M., Wangchuk, K., Yangzom, D and Richter, D.J. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori in Bhutan: The role of environment and geographic location. Helicobacter 2013, doi: 10.1111/hel.12088 (Accessed September 23, 2013).

Tables, figures and scientific measurements Tables and figures should be of reproducible quality, include comprehensive captions and not duplicate material presented in the text. Tables and Figures should bear Arabic numerals and be referred to in the text by their numbers e.g. Table 1. Each table and figure must be typed on a separate sheet and should be placed at the end of the manuscript. Vertical lines should not be used to separate columns in a table.

Footnotes in tables should be indicated by superscript letters beginning with 'a' in each table. Descriptive material not designated as a footnote may be placed under a table as a NOTE. All illustrations should be given separately. They should be numbered as figures in sequence with Arabic numerals e.g. Figure 1. Each figure should have a descriptive legend. All illustrations (tables and figures) must be cited consecutively in the text. Only International System of Units (SI) is acceptable. Symbols and nomenclatures should conform to international recommendations with respect to specific fields of specialization.

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Journal Identifiers

eISSN: 2312-6019
print ISSN: 1816-3378