Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology: Submissions

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Author Guidelines

Manuscripts should be submitted to the Editorial office of EJST via e-mail:  A letter signed by all authors declaring that the manuscript has not been published or submitted for publication elsewhere should accompany the manuscript. Authors should state that they have agreed to its submission and are responsible for its contents. This statement should preferably be signed by all authors. The cover letter should also indicate the name and address of the corresponding author.

Article content and format

Manuscripts should be written in English and typed single-spaced, on A4 size pages, with margins of 1.75 cm on each side of the paper (top, bottom, left, and right sides). A font size of 12 points (Times New Roman) should be used throughout. The major sections of the manuscript such as Title page, Abstract, key words, Introduction, Materials and Methods/Experimental, Results and Discussion, Conclusion, Acknowledgements, References should be left aligned left, centered and written in UPPERCASE letters. The subsections should be aligned left, with font size of 12 in bold face.  The title should be centered at the top of page.

All pages in papers must be numbered consecutively. The main text should be typed flush left with no indents and double line spaced. Insert one return between paragraphs, and a double return between paper title, and authors' names and addresses on the first page.

Research papers should not exceed 7,500 words in length, including Figures, Tables and References, and should not contain more than 10 Figures and/or Tables.

Review papers (critical and comprehensive reviews that provide new insights or interpretation of the subject through thorough and systematic evaluation of available evidence) may be longer than Research Papers if appropriate, and subject to the Editor's agreement.

Short Communications (fully documented, interpreted accounts of significant findings of original research) should not exceed 2,500 words including Figures, Tables and References. Short communications must report completed work.  They must have an abstract and references, but the main body of the text does not have to follow the Introduction - Method - Results - Discussion format.

Manuscripts for full length Research articles (Research papers and  Review papers) should be divided into the following sections (in this order): Title page; Abstract, key words; Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results and Discussion, Conclusion, Acknowledgements, References, Tables (each table complete with title and footnotes on a separate page) and illustrations and figures.

The title page should provide the title of the manuscript, full name (s), institutional affiliations and e-mail address of the author (s). It should also indicate the fax and telephone numbers of the author responsible for correspondence about the manuscript. Non-standard abbreviations should be avoided within the title.

The abstract of the manuscript should not exceed 250 words. The abstract should briefly describe the problem and the objectives of the study, how the study was performed, the main findings and major conclusions and recommendations.  Avoid using non-standard abbreviations and references in the abstract.


After the abstract, authors should provide 3 to 6 Key words or phrases that will be used for indexing purpose.



The introduction should clearly state the background to the research. Include a summary of a search of the literature to indicate why the study was necessary and what it aimed to contribute to the field. This section should indicate statement of what is being reported in the article and the objectives of the work. The introduction should not exceed two pages. Avoid a detailed literature survey and summary of results.


The materials and methods section should include the sampling procedures, measurements, data collection and analysis. Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described. For studies involving human participants a statement detailing ethical approval and consent should be included in the methods section.


The results and discussion may be combined into a single section or presented separately. Present the major findings of the study in the text, tables, and illustrations and relate the observations to other relevant studies and indicate possible practical implications including implications for future research. Do not repeat the data in the tables or illustrations in the text all. Emphasize or summarize only important observations.


This should state clearly the main conclusions of the research and give a clear explanation of their importance and relevance. Summary illustrations may be included.


Acknowledge anyone who did substantial contributions to conception, design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, or who was involved in drafting the manuscript or revising it critically for important intellectual content, but who does not meet the criteria for authorship. Please also include the source (s) of funding and also acknowledge anyone who contributed materials essential to the study.


Citation in text
Ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

References should be cited in the text as follows:

1. Single author: the author's name (without initials, unless there is ambiguity) and the year of publication e.g. (Williams, 2013). Except Ethiopian names, which should be cited in full i.e. the first name followed by father’s name.

2. Two authors: both authors' names and the year of publication e.g. (Williams and David, 2013).

3. Three or more authors: first author's name followed by 'et al.' and the year of publication e.g. Williams et al., 2013).
4. Citations may be made directly or in parenthesis. Groups of references should be listed first chronologically then, alphabetically. Example (Girma Adugna et al., 2000; Girma Adugna et al., 2001; CABI, 2003; Girma Adugna, 2004; Oduor et al., 2004).

More than one reference from the same author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters 'a', 'b', 'c', etc., placed after the year of publication. Examples: 'as demonstrated (Allan, 2000a; Allan, 2000b, Allan, 1999; Allan and Jones, 1999). Kramer et al. (2010) have recently shown ....' According to Berdy (1995), around 11,900 antibiotics had been discovered by 1994  5. Ethiopian names should be in direct order, i.e., the full first name followed by the father’s name (e.g.  Girma Adugna, 2004).

Reference style

The references should be arranged alphabetically by author’s last name then chronologically per author. Publications by the same author (s) in the same year should be listed by year followed by the letters a. b. c. etc. (e.g. 2002a. 2002b, 2002c.).

Journal article

Author (s), year of publication (in parenthesis), title of the article (sentence case),   full name of journal (in italic font), volume, number (in parenthesis) , and page numbers in full.

Shukla, G.K. (1972). Some statistical aspects of partitioning genotype-environmental

components of variability. Heredity 29: 237-245.

Tamire, G and  Mengistou, S. (2013). Zooplankton community grazing rates in a small crater Lake: Lake Kuriftu, Ethiopia. SINET: Ethiopian Journal of Science 36 (1): 1-18.

Zobel, W.R., Wright, W.J. and Gauch (Jr.), J.H. (1988). Statistical analysis of a yield trial.

Agronomy Journal 80: 388-393.

For a book

Author (s), year of publication (in parenthesis), title of the book (bold font), publisher and place of publication.


Steel, R. G. and Torrie, J. H. (1980). Principles and Procedures of Statistics. McGraw-Hill, New York.

Pages in a publication prepared by one or more editors
uthor (s), year of publication (in parenthesis), Title of the publication, Name of the publication (Bold font) , pages, Editors (in parenthesis), Publisher, Place of publication.


Lechevalier, M.P. and Lechevalier, H.A. (1980). The chemotaxonomy of Actinomycetes.

In: Actinomycete Taxonomy, Society for Industrial Microbiology, pp. 227-291 (Dietz, X. and Thayer, Y., eds.). Arlington, VA.


Author (s), year of publication (in parenthesis), Title of the publication, Name of the proceeding (Bold font) , pages,  Place (City/town, Country) 


 Eshetu Derso, Teame Geberzgi and Girma Adugna (2000). Significance of minor diseases

of Coffea arabica in Ethiopia. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Control of

Coffee Berry Disease (CBD) in Ethiopia, pp. 35-46, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

For a Thesis

Author (s), year of publication (in parenthesis), title of the thesis, type (MSc or PhD), University, Country.


Alberts, M.J.A. (2004). A comparison of statistical methods to describe genotype x

environment interaction and yield stability in multi-location maize trials. M. Sc. Thesis, University of the Free State, South Africa.

Web references
The full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed should be included. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given.

Toni, R.L. and  Culvert, L.L. (2003). Safer Hospital Stay and Reducing Hospital-Born Infections. Health Scout News., (accessed January 9, 2010).

Khan, M.H.,  Mubeen, S.M., Chaudhry, T.A. and  Khan S.A. Contact lens use and its compliance for care among healthcare workers in Pakistan. Indian Journal of Ophthalmology [Epub ahead of print] [cited 2013 Nov 12]. Available from:

 Dorji, D., Dendup, T.,  Malaty, H.M., Wangchuk, K., Yangzom, D and Richter,  D.J. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori in Bhutan: The role of environment and geographic location. Helicobacter 2013, doi: 10.1111/hel.12088. (Accessed September 23, 2013).


Tables, figures and scientific measurements

Tables, figures and illustrations should be of reproducible quality, include comprehensive captions and not duplicate material presented in the text. Tables should bear Arabic numerals and be referred to in the text by their numbers e.g. Table 1. Vertical lines should not be used to separate columns; instead extra space should be left between the columns. Avoid internal vertical or horizontal lines in tables. Footnotes in tables should be indicated by superscript letters beginning with 'a' in each table. Descriptive material not designated as a footnote may be placed under a table as a NOTE

They should be numbered as figures in sequence with Arabic numerals e.g. Figure 1. Each figure should have a descriptive legend and this should be given on a separate sheet after the manuscript.
All illustrations, tables and figures must be cited consecutively in the text and placed within the text at appropriate points rather than at the end.

Only International System of Units (SI) is acceptable. Symbols and nomenclatures should conform to international recommendations with respect to specific fields of specialization.



Copyright Notice

The copyright belongs to the journal.

The articles in Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology are Open Access distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (


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ISSN: 2312-6019
AJOL African Journals Online