Productivity and economic efficiency of soybean varieties cultivation upon application of organic and mineral fertilizers
An objective was set to bring up the production output of soybean in Russia to 7.2 mln. tonnes by 2020. In 2016 2.9 mln. tonnes were produced with the yielding capacity of 15.6 dt/ha. The Belgorod region ranks second in the all-Russian harvest –502.7 thousand tonnes or 17.4%, with the best yielding index – 24.4 dt/ha. The objective of increasing the soybean output is associated with its yielding capacity enhancement. The varieties of high potential production output were created – 3.6 tonnes/ha, for realization of which the nutrient status of plants is important. In this regard the research goal was to study the impact of organic and mineral fertilizers (manure-straw compost (20 tonnes/ha), ammonium nitrate (30 kg of primary nutrient per ha), Azosol 36 Extra (twice 2 l/ha)) and combinations thereof on the yielding capacity, seed quality and economic efficiency of cultivation of soybean varieties from different maturity groups (early-ripening – Lantsentnaya and mid-season – Belgorodskaya 48).Unstable weather conditions giving advantages to either early-ripening or mid-season varieties resulted in the lack of any significant difference of yielding capacity between the varieties under study for three years on average. Fertilizers contributed to growth of the yielding capacity. The maximum yielding capacity of soybean seeds was observedupon application of a complete fertilizer “Compost + Ammonium nitrate +Azosol” – 3.01-3.04 tonnes/ha, which is 18-22% higher as compared with control. Application of compost fertilizers leveled out differences of varieties of different maturity in terms of protein content in soybean seeds which grew upon saturation of the fertilization status by 3.9-5.3%. As for the fat content the early-ripening variety Lantsentnaya had distinct advantages – 1.4% higher which contributed to the higher output of oil – by 30 kg/ha.Soybean can secure the net profit of 21-26 thous. rubles per ha with the profitability level of 70-107%. Compost fertilizers came in a close second to mineral fertilizers securing a profit of 23.5-25.5 thous. rubles per ha.
Keywords: soybean,variety, organic and mineral fertilizers, yielding capacity,seed quality, economic efficiency