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Libyan Journal of Medicine

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The Acute Inflammatory Response in Trauma / Hemorrhage and Traumatic Brain Injury: Current State and Emerging Prospects

R Namas, A Ghuma, L Hermus, R Zamora, DO Okonkwo, TR Billiar, Y Vodovotz

Abstract


Traumatic injury/hemorrhagic shock (T/HS) elicits an acute inflammatory response that may result in death. Inflammation describes a coordinated series of molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, and systemic responses that drive the pathology of various diseases including T/HS and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Inflammation is a finely tuned, dynamic, highly-regulated process that is not inherently detrimental, but rather required for immune surveillance, optimal post-injury tissue repair, and regeneration. The inflammatory response is driven by cytokines and chemokines and is partially propagated by damaged tissue-derived products (Damage-associated Molecular Patterns; DAMP’s). DAMPs perpetuate inflammation through the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, but may also inhibit anti-inflammatory cytokines. Various animal models of T/HS in mice, rats, pigs, dogs, and nonhuman
primates have been utilized in an attempt to move from bench to bedside. Novel approaches, including those from the field of systems biology, may yield therapeutic breakthroughs in T/HS and TBI in the near future.

Key words: Trauma, Hemorrhagic Shock, Traumatic Brain Injury, Inflammation, Systems Biology




http://dx.doi.org/10.4176/090325
AJOL African Journals Online