Helicobacter pylori and upper digestive diseases - diagnosis through real time PCR
Objective: Helicobacter pylori, which has been designated by the WHO as type I carcinogen, has a global prevalence of over 50%. The aim of this study was to determine the association between this bacterium and upper gastrointestinal problems in an endoscopy unit in Ouagadougou, using a molecular diagnostic method.
Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 111 patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal diagnostic endoscopy between April and June 2013. Each patient had four gastric biopsies taken. Helicobacter pylori was detected by real-time PCR at the Biomolecular Research Centre, CERBA/LABIOGENE.
Results: The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in patients with various upper gastrointestinal problems was 84.7%. The use of medication that can reduce the H. pylori density was common among the infected patients, as history of antibiotics use, acid suppressant use and medications for eradication treatment were obtained in 43.6%, 26.6% and 18% respectively. Abdominal pain was the indication for the examination in 97.88%. The prevalence rate of H. Pylori was 87.21% among those who presented with signs of gastroesophageal reflux diseases (GERD) and 76% in those without signs. The endoscopy was normal in 55.85%. In all cases of ulcers (8.51%), the PCR was positive for H. pylori. There were no cases of gastric or duodenal cancers.
Conclusion: This study confirms the high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in our cohort of patients when PCR method was used, but showed a direct relationship between presence of symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease and prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection.
Keywords: Helicobacter pylori, Real-time PCR, Endoscopy, Prevalence