Seroprevalence trends of hepatitis B and C among donors in the blood bank service of a Nigerian tertiary hospital: a five-year retrospective study
Background and Objectives: Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections remain very serious public health risks of blood transfusion globally, and especially in developing regions. In the present study, we sought to retrospectively describe the trends of the seroprevalence of HBV and HCV among blood bank donors in the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital and explore the implications thereof.
Methodology: The blood donors’ screening records over a period of five years, from January 2012 to December 2016, were carefully extracted from the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Blood Bank record repository, and subjected to descriptive analysis.
Results: Of the 19,667 blood donations recorded within the study period, 775 were hepatitis B positive (3.94%), 251 were hepatitis C positive (1.28%) and 6 were hepatitis B and C co-infected (0.031%). Hepatitis C seropositivity rate was relatively stable across the study period, and varied between 0.45% (2014) and 1.74 % (2012). However, the Hepatitis B prevalence rate appeared to have declined, from 5.51% in 2012 to 2.99% in 2015 and 3.30% in 2016.
Conclusions: The overall HCV seroprevalence in the present study concurs with the relatively low prevalence generally reported in our environment, while the HBV seroprevalence in the index study is significantly lower than the previously documented ranges in the general population. However, the declining trend of HBV seroprevalence noted over the study period appears to mirror the reported trend in the general population.
Keywords: Hepatitis B virus; Hepatitis C virus; Blood donors; Seroprevalence trend; Nigeria