Optimal sowing periods and use of drought-resistant Sorghum varieties as an adaptation strategy to climate change in the Sudanian and Sahelian zones of Mali
Description of the subject. A comparative trial of 3 varieties of sorghum sown at 3 different dates set up in Koulikoro (Sudanian zone) and San (Sahelian zone). The trial was conducted over two cropping seasons in 2018 and 2019.
Objective. The study was to determine the optimal sowing periods for good sorghum productivity in the two zones of Mali.
Methods. The experimental design was a split plot with three varieties (Fambè, Wassa, Jakumbè) as the primary factor and sowing date (secondary factor). The data collected were growth parameters (height velocity and diameter at the crown of the plants) and yield parameters (biomass and grain).
Results. The highest grain and biomass yields at the Koulikoro site were obtained with the Fambè variety (2.40 ± 0.02 t. ha-1) and biomass of 6.40 ± 0.20 t. ha-1. At the San site, the Wassa variety had the highest grain and biomass yields (2.44 ± 0.00 t. ha-1 and 9.22 ± 0.79 t. ha-1). In the second year of testing, the variety Jakumbé also had the highest grain yields of 3.61 ± 0.14 t ha-1 and biomass of 12.00 ± 0.70 t ha-1 in Koulikoro. In San, the variety Fambè (3.03 ± 0.05 t. ha-1 and 12.50 ± 1.55 t. ha-1). Overall, the first two planting dates in June resulted in higher yields in both zones. If rainfall starts on the right date, early July planting of the sorghum cultivar Fambè in the two study areas could be a good adaptation strategy to climate change.
Conclusion. This result could be proposed as an adaptation strategy to climate change for improving sorghum productivity and ensuring food security in the study area.
Copyright is held by the Faculty of Agronomic Sciences of the University of Kinshasa.