The African Journal of Environment and Agriculture (RAFEA) is an open-access French-language journal that publishes original and summary articles (four issues per year) concerning all areas related to agriculture and sustainable management of the environment: productions plant and animal sciences, veterinary sciences, forestry sciences, soil and earth sciences, rural engineering, environmental sciences, fisheries and fish farming, bio-industries, agri-food and socio-economics. 

  1. Submission Policy

The African Journal of Environment and Agriculture only takes into consideration articles approved by all co-authors, which have never been published before and which do not are not being published on any other medium. Failure to comply with these rules will result in rejection of the article. Manuscripts should be submitted to the following address:, copy for information at The manuscript should be submitted as a Word file, body text in Times New Roman 12, double spaced. The lines and the pages are numbered continuously. Articles are submitted in French or English. The manuscripts should not exceed 20 pages (tables, figures or images included).

  1. Elements of the manuscript

The manuscript must contain the following elements: 

2.1. Title

The choice of a title is an art of conciseness and honesty, because it is the first element of decision for a reader. The title is also the best marketing element of the document. It must be written with clarity and completeness allowing it to be understood without recourse to the full text. The title should be informative or descriptive and should represent the main message of the article. The title should be simple, short but comprehensive enough and understandable by a scientist who is not an expert in your specialty. For review articles, the title must end with: “bibliographical review” or “review”. Example: Influence of environment and cultural practices on the productivity of Jatropha curcas L. in Sub-Saharan Africa (Bibliographic summary).

2.2. Authors

In the list of authors, the name of the corresponding author is identified with an asterisk, and the affiliation (faculty, department and/or laboratory name and postal address) is completed with their email address. The family name follows the given name(s), in all letters. The first two authors are considered co-first authors and that the two last authors are considered co-last authors. 

2.3. Summary (Abstract)

The summary must be written in French and English. The summary includes all plus 250 words (200 words maximum for research notes). It does not contain any reference or table or figure. It must be readable independently of the text of the article. It must be structured in five parts below: "Description of the subject", "Objectives", "Methods", "Results" and " Conclusion ". A structure, in three parts, is also applicable for the bibliographic summaries (Introduction, Literature, Conclusion).

2.4. Keywords

Following each summary, at most five (5) key words must be mentioned. The key words must be chosen judiciously, by asking themselves if they are easily understandable taken individually and if they represent the problem, the methodology, type of results, study population and study region. Avoid repeating words already present in the title and in the summary.

  1. Body text of original articles

The constituent elements of the body of the original articles are the following: the introduction, the material and methods, the results, the discussion, the conclusion and the bibliographical references.

3.1. Introduction

The introduction makes a brief reminder of the previous data, it circumscribes the subject under study in describing the current situation and ends by exposing the lack of knowledge or the existing vacuum, which shows an interest in the research that will be carried out to provide new information. The introduction places the manuscript in a well-defined context and allows readers from outside the subject area to grasp the issues. The introduction presents the problem addressed and explains its importance. It must present the question(s), the hypotheses and research objectives.

3.2. Material and methods

This part precisely describes the stages of research in the field or in the laboratory and the nature of the data collected. This description must give the possibility to another researcher to reproduce a similar experiment or to use the same method in another research. It is important to choose the most appropriate search strategy to verify the objectives, hypotheses or research questions. The objective is to allow evaluating the quality of the research plan and the robustness of the results. 

3.3. Results

The presentation of the results must be brief and explicit, without redundancy: one must not highlight evidence that meaningful data. It is appropriate in this section to use illustrations, graphs, tables or any other relevant means to present the results explicitly and clearly. The same result cannot be presented under both form of table or graph. The interpretation of the results consists in drawing one's own conclusions. Negative results are as interesting in research as positive results. In this case, the section of conclusion can be developed on what should be done to possibly obtain positive results.

3.4. Discussion

The purpose of this part is to explain to the reader the results of your research. In science, to explain is to use theories and facts to show how X is the cause of Y. In other words, why is your hypothesis confirmed? Why isn't she ? Or again, why is it partially so? This explanation will therefore make it possible to answer the question you asked in your problem. If necessary, you can also consult new sources in order to find arguments; these new sources should then be cited in references, at the end of your article. Likewise, it is necessary to report the exceptions and meaningless results. Above all, it is important to avoid overgeneralizing the results or unduly inflate their values. We must also compare the results of our research with other studies.

similar. It is necessary to insist on the convergences and the differences between these studies and yours. He analyzes the theoretical or practical implications of the research. In this part, we can recall the originality and the interest of the article or the research. We can, if necessary, explain unexpected results or observations. Do not fall into the trap of place too much emphasis on previous work in relation to one's own results. It is also imprudent to use works that one has not read by relying on third parties because the latter may have made errors in reading or interpretation. It is also necessary to be critical, to present the limits of the research described without denigrating the work done. Do not repeat elements that would have their place in introduction and incorporate them into the discussion. The discussion ends with a conclusion which can be presented under a separate title.

3.5. Conclusion

A conclusion never involves new interpretations. Rather, it refers to limitations and weaknesses. This part summarizes the main contributions of the study, identifies the areas of agreement and areas of controversy. It clarifies the questions that still await some answers. 

  1. Body text for review articles

Review articles should include the following elements: title, abstracts in French and in English, the key words (according to the recommendations made for the articles originals), introduction, literature and conclusion. Bibliographic references constitute the last point of the text.

4.1. Introduction

The introduction specifies the subject, the limits and the scope of the work. This introduction introduces also the choice of the structure of the “Literature” part and the methodology used for the literature search. 

4.2. Literature

This is the main part of the review article. It contains a discussion of the different sources used. The selection of these references is essential. It is necessary to avoid the redundant sources by choosing the main references. In this part, the information is organized and grouped according to the evolution of the subject in time, according to the points of view and the schools and according to the different aspects from subject. The author's critical contribution must be clearly identifiable. The review article is not a series of descriptions but a critical analysis. Avoid starting all the sentences of this part with an author's name.

  1. Important rules to follow

Names of living organisms are in italics. Any living organism, at its first mentioned in the text and the summary, is cited by its full scientific name, followed by the sponsors. Example: Zea mays L. From the second citation in the text, the gender is abbreviated (unless it starts a sentence). Example: Abbreviations are defined in parentheses on their first occurrences. The units, symbols and nomenclature should follow international conventions. The standard units and chemical element symbols will be used without being defined. The comma separates the parts of a proposition or a sentence provided that they are not not already united by the conjunctions and, or, nor. It also separates enumerations. We don't put no comma before a parenthesis, dash or square bracket. If a comma is needed, it come after. The semicolon separates different propositions of the same nature. The colon introduces a explanation, quotation, speech, enumeration. The ellipses are always three in number (we nevertheless prefer “etc.”). In body text, bold is used in headings or to emphasize a word. For that the enhancement is clearly visible in the text, its use must be limited.

The numbers from one to ten are spelled out. They are written in numbers when it comes to quantities followed by a unit of measure. They are also written in digits if numbers to one base unit (from one to nine) and numbers with two or more base units (more than nine) are found in the same sentence and designate units of the same nature. At the beginning of a sentence, a number, whatever it is, is always spelled out. The years are indicated in four digits. Numerical data must not contain more significant digits than the precision of the measurements does not allow it, and in general, the authors must apply the same precision in all the texts. Decimal numbering is used to indicate the hierarchy of divisions and subdivisions, not exceeding three levels. There is never a period, comma or semicolon at the end of a title or subtitle. Unit abbreviations may be used without further definition. The liter is noted “l”. In the text, the units are spelled out, unless they are preceded by a number, in which case the international abbreviation will be used (d, g, m, J, etc.).

  1. Acknowledgments

It is essential that the organizations which have financed, in the form of subsidies, contracts or scholarship, the research or part of the research, be thanked. You don't have to exaggerate or find occasion for flattery, naivety. Acknowledgements, if any, should be placed immediately after the main text and before the bibliographical references. Example: We would like to thank the Belgian Technical Cooperation (BTC) and the Commission University for Development (CUD) for the financial support provided to the realization of our research.

  1. Bibliographic references

The value of the works consulted can consecrate the credibility of the research and serve guidance to other researchers. It is normally necessary to have consulted the original of the documents in reference, otherwise one can never be certain of the authenticity of the assertions reported by others. The presentation of the bibliographical references conforms to the Harvard international style adapted to the African Journal of Environment and of Agriculture. The list of all the bibliographic references cited in the text is presented at the end of the article, before the appendices. In this section, the author's name is followed by the first letter of his post-name or first name. The references are listed in order alphabetically by first author and in chronological order for a given author. The author unique precedes the author accompanied by a co-author. References should not be numbered. When there are more than six authors, only the first three authors are cited, followed by "et al.".

8.1. Book or manual

The elements author, year, title, edition (if different from the first edition), place of publication (city and country if the city is not a capital) and publisher are essential. The title of the book in italics. Example: 

  1. Agrios G., 1997. Plant pathology. 4th ed. New York, NY, USA; London: Academic Press. 
  2. 2Hensen J. & Perry B., 1995. Epidemiology, diagnosis and prophylaxis of helminthiasis of domestic ruminants. FAO, Rome, 176 p. 
  3. Book chapter: Lepoivre P. & Kummert J., 1989. Diagnosis of parasitic diseases. In: Semal J., Ed. Treaty of plant pathology. Gembloux (Belgium): Agricultural presses de Gembloux, pp. 74-96. 

8.2. Periodical article

The titles of periodicals are abbreviated according to the list published by the ISSN International Center, The List of Title Word Abbreviations ( Those with only one word are not abbreviated, such as: Heredity, Endeavour, etc. The name of the journal should be in italics followed by the volume number. Example : 

  1. Goozner M., Caplan A., Moreno J., Kramer BS., Babor TF. & Husser WC. 2009. A common standard for conflict of interest disclosure in addiction journals. Addiction, 104, 1779-1784.  
  2. Bagalwa M., Masunga M., Balagizi K. & Ntumba K., 1996. Prévalence de parasites gastrointestinaux et inventaire de mollusques dans les hauts plateaux d’Uvira, Est de la RDC. Tropicultura, 14, 129-133. 
  3. Ntoto M’v. & Lunze M., 206. Les politiques agricoles et importations alimentaires en RDC : analyse d’impact sur les politiques mises en œuvre. Annal. Fac. Sc. Agro., 7(1), 6-18.

8.3. Reports of conferences 

Conference proceedings are treated as monographs; moreover, they mention if possible the place, the date of the meeting and the scientific publisher(s).

Example : Charudattan R., 1996. Pathogens for biological control of water hyacinth. In: Charudattan R., Labrada R., Center T.D. & Kelly-Begazo C., eds. Strategies for water hyacinth control. A report of a panel of experts meeting, 11-14 September, 1995, Fort Lauderdale, Florida. Roma: FAO, 90-97.

8.4. Thesis

The thesis is described as a monograph, with the title of the degree and the name of the university where the thesis was defended as well as the number of pages. Example : Minengu J.D.D., 2014. Etude des possibilités de culture de Jatropha curcas L. dans la région de Kinshasa (République Démocratique du Congo). Thèse de doctorat : Université de Liège- Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, Gembloux (Belgique), 178 p.

8.5. Document on the Internet

A document on the Internet is described as a printed document followed by a comma, the complete Internet address and the date of consultation (written in parentheses). Example :

Riemann U., 2013. The bionic Jatropha breeding platform in 2013, (15/10/2013). 

  1. Quotations from "in press" or "accepted" articles may be included in the bibliography. Documents "in preparation", "submitted" or "personal communication (which may, if necessary, be cited in the text), unpublished internal reports, courses and dissertations are not reliable sources and cannot be included in the bibliography.
  2. Figures

The list of figures includes all graphs, charts or histograms, flow charts, illustrations, photographs, images and maps. When an author reproduces a figure taken from another publication, it must mention the source but also obtain permission to reproduce from the publisher concerned. Each figure must be accompanied by a short caption describing it if necessary. The number of illustrations is not limited. However, authors must ensure the relevance, non-redundancy and the clarity of their illustrations. All figures are numbered in the sequential order of appearance in the text, i.e.: figure 1, figure 2; etc. You never end a figure title with a period. The titles of figures must be expressive and include the whole message that we want to convey. The figures must be the subject of at least one reference in the text, but this reference does not exclude the need to explain, in the text itself, what the figure is for. The figures must necessarily serve to support assertions or observations and the reader should not ask what exactly they are for.


The rules for numbering and presentation of tables are the same as those for figures. The tables are numbered successively (Table 1, Table 2, etc.). Each table should be accompanied by a short caption if necessary located directly under the table. A table does not include any graphics or symbols, otherwise it becomes a figure. The title of a table necessarily includes the variables or the set of variables in question. When an author reproduces a table from another publication, he must mention the source but also obtain permission to reproduce from the publisher concerned. 

  1. Evaluation of the manuscript

The editors reserve the right to decide whether an article should be submitted to members of the Reading committee. They can also reject a manuscript that does not correspond to the publication criteria (poor quality of presentation, inappropriate subject, etc.). An article must be: (i) fundamentally fair and appropriate, (ii) significant progress and not only a minor advance over a previous work, (iii) accessible to the entire readership of the journal.

The following questions will be addressed to the members of the Reading Committee to support their notice :

  • Does the subject correspond to the fields of the Journal ?
  • Does the article contain enough original results to justify its publication ?
  • Is the article technically correct and error-free ?
  • Is the work presented clearly and concisely ?
  • Are the practical applications sufficiently developed ?
  • Does the title clearly and sufficiently reflect the content ?
  • Is the summary informative? Does it contain main findings and conclusions ?
  • Is the scientific discussion correct ?
  • Are the illustrations of good quality, appropriate, relevant and understandable ?
  • Does the bibliography give an overview of the state of the art in the field ?
  • Etc. 
  1. Withdrawal of an article

An article may be removed from the Journal after submission provided that the request accompanied by a letter of explanation be made before the publication of the article. The publication in another journal of an improved article after the comments of the Committee of reading opposes the editorial policy of the African Journal of Environment and of Agriculture.

  1. Publishing contract

In order to ensure the originality of the manuscript and the agreement of its publication by all authors, the main author is asked to sign a Publication Agreement (Contrat available). 

  1. Publication costs

The journal charges a publication fee of 200USD, to be paid when the manuscript is accepted for publication.

  1. Reading committee

The African Journal of Environment and Agriculture is made up of volunteer readers belonging to the international scientific community, specialized in the fields of agriculture and sustainable management of the environment. Articles are subject to two or several readers selected by the Editorial Board. These readers remain anonymous for authors and authors also remain anonymous to readers.

Readers must submit their opinion within 45 days. The Editor collects usually two independent opinions. In case of non-concordant opinions, another reader can also be appointed to act as an arbitrator between the two readers. The revised version of a manuscript must be returned within two months of the Editor's decision, a re-submission after this date is considered the submission of a new article. However, if the review requires more time, a deadline additional may be granted to the author.

  1. Writing aids

The Editorial Office is available to authors to provide them with advice and aids. Manuscripts under review are subject to in-depth comments allowing authors to improve their work. The Secretariat can also put the authors in contact with scientists who can help them improve their manuscript. 

  1. Copyright

Authors who publish in the African Journal of Environment and Agriculture accept terms : 

  1. The authors retain the copyright and grant to the African Review of Environment and Agriculture the right of first publication allowing others to share the article while acknowledging authorship and original publication.
  2. Authors may enter into additional and separate contractual agreements for non-exclusive distribution of the printed version of the article (e.g. deposit institutional or publication in a book), accompanied by a statement acknowledging its initial publication in the African Journal of Environment and of Agriculture. 
  3. Other elements of ethics

Animal studies

For studies carried out in a laboratory or in the field, animal experimentation must comply with international standards in this area. In case of absence of guarantee, the article will be rejected.

Fraud and plagiarism

All articles submitted to RAFEA are checked using anti-plagiarism software (Plangram). When plagiarism is detected, the level of plagiarism is assessed and, depending on the severity of it, the sanctions are applied by the Editorial Board.

Journal Identifiers

eISSN: 2708-5422
print ISSN: 2708-7743