Mangosteen peel can reduce methane production and rumen biohydrogenation in vitro
Mangosteen peel (MP), an agricultural by-product of tropical countries, has been reported to contain condensed tannins and saponins, which can affect rumen microbes to reduce enteric methane emission. In the present study, the effects of mangosteen peel on in vitro ruminal fermentation, gas production, methane production, fatty acid biohydrogenation, and microbial population were investigated. Results showed that MP at medium and high levels (25 % and 50 % replacing alfalfa) were able to reduce (P <0.05) in vitro methane production without affecting volatile fatty acid (VFA) production and the pH of the substrate. The lowering effect of MP on methane production was because of suppression of the rumen microbial populations, especially total protozoa and total methanogens. MP at the higher level (50%) reduced (P <0.05) the amounts of biohydrogenation for linoleic acid (C18:2n-6), α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) and the total C18 unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) owing to the reduction of the Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens population, that is, the most important rumen microorganism involved in the biohydrogenation process. In conclusion, mangosteen peel has potential to be used in ruminant livestock feeds, with the advantage of reducing ruminal methane production and biohydrogenation, without adverse effects on ruminal pH and VFA production.
Keywords: agricultural by-product, saponins, condensed tannins, gas production, volatile fatty acid, microbial quantification