Ghana Journal of Development Studies (GJDS) is a multi – trans – and an interdisciplinary journal with a development focus. The GJDS publishes works on development policy, programming and projects, whether analytical, evaluative, basic, applicative and/or descriptive. It accepts papers from varied disciplinary areas; including the physical sciences, social sciences and the humanities. Articles must show direct relevance to development. Emphasis is on empirical research that build on and/or ground theory. However, manuscripts of high quality on theoretical aspects of development related disciplines as well as book reviews are considered for publication. The GJDS provides a forum for lecturers, researchers, and development-related professionals to re/present findings on critical research and/or analysis of development issues with emphasis on, but not exclusive to the Ghanaian as well as African settings. The GJDS is a journal of the Faculty of Integrated Development Studies of SD Dombo University of Business and Integrated Development Studies, Ghana. The GJDS is a peer-reviewed journal and indexed on internationally acclaimed scholarly indexing/publishing systems: The International Bibliography of Social Sciences (IBSS), EBSCO and Society of African Journal Editors.