Nutritional and microbiological quality of kunun-zaki beverage produced in Owerri Muncipal
Nutritional and Microbiological qualities of kunu-zaki hawked at different locations in Owerri municipal were assessed and evaluated. Three major locations of production and sales namely: Shell-camp, Ama-Hausa and Obinze all in Owerri municipal were selected for sampling of kunuzaki. Laboratory prepared sample of kunu-zaki was used as control. Samples of kunu were evaluated for microbiological quality such as total bacteria and fungi counts also, biochemical characterization of bacteria and morphological characterization of fungi. Chemical properties which include proximate composition, titrable acidity, pH, total solid and minerals were also examined. Results showed that there was a significant difference (P<0.05) on all the chemical properties of samples examined. The moisture content ranged from 85.14% to 89.57% while crude protein was between 2.20% and 4.09%. Ash content varied significantly (P>0.05) with range 1.67% to 2.33%. Crude fiber content of 0.71% of control was higher than 0.68%, 0.53% and 0.44% found on the hawked kunu-zaki sample. Total carbohydrate was found within ranged values of 5.54% to 7.74%. Total solid content among kunu-zaki samples ranged from 12.54mg/100g to 14.32mg/100g, pH ranged 5.37 to 5.76 and acidity of the kunu-zaki samples varied but ranged from 0.23% of sample collected from Obinze location to 0.28% of Ama-Hausa kunu-zaki sample. Mineral contents of kunu-zaki samples differed significantly (P<0.05), calcium content of 32.09mg/100g was higher than 31.21mg/100g, 27.31mg100g and 12.53mg/100g. Potassium content ranged from 311.63mg/100g to 449.03mg/100g. Control laboratory sample was found with highest content of 11.74mg/100g magnesium, 4.81mg/100g iron and 30.26mg/100g vitamin C. Total bacteria counts of the kunu-zaki samples ere not the same; control laboratory sample was least, 3.0 x 106 cfu/mL of heterotrophic bacteria, 3.0 x 106 cfu/mL of total Staphylococcus count and 9.0 x 106 cfu/mL of fungi counts. Bacteria identified are Bacillus spp, Klebsiella spp, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella while fungi suspected include Mucor spp, Saccharomyces spp, Aspergillus spp and Rhizopus. However, laboratory processed samples made kunu-zaki beverage were more acceptable with least microbial load. Good manufacturing and good hygiene practices should be given utmost importance during production to avoid microbial contamination that may cause food borne illness.
Keywords: Nutritional, microbiological, Kunun- zaki beverage